- © 2010 Geological Society of South Africa
The geology of northeastern Mozambique has been remapped at 1:250 000 scale. Proterozoic rocks, which make up the bulk of the area, form a number of gneiss complexes defined on the basis of their lithologies, metamorphic grade, structures, tectonic relationships and ages. The gneiss complexes, which contain both ortho- and paragneisses, range from Palaeo- to Neoproterozoic in age, and were juxtaposed along tectonic contacts during the late Neoproterozoic to Cambrian Pan-African Orogeny. In this paper we describe the geological evolution of the terranes north of the Lurio Belt, a major tectonic boundary which separates the complexes described in this paper from the Nampula Complex to the south. The Marrupa, Nairoto and Meluco Complexes are dominated by orthogneisses of felsic to intermediate compositions. Granulitic rocks, including charnockites, are present in the Unango, M’Sawize, Xixano and Ocua Complexes (the last forms the centre of the Lurio Belt). The Neoproterozoic Geci and Txitonga Groups are dominated by metasupracrustal rocks at low metamorphic grades and have been tectonically juxtaposed with the Unango Complex. Geochemical data integrate and support a model of terrain assembly in northeast Mozambique, which is largely published and mainly derived from our new geochronological, lithostratigraphic and structural work. This model shows the contrast between the mainly felsic lower tectonostratigraphic levels (Unango, Marrupa, Nairoto and Meluco Complexes) and the significantly more juvenile overlying complexes (Xixano, Muaquia, M’Sawize, Lalamo and Montepuez Complexes), which were all assembled during the Cambrian Pan-African orogeny. The juxtaposed terranes were stitched by several suites of Cambrian late- to post-tectonic granitoids.